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An Introduction to Circular Economy

Circular Economy Practices in India


Circular economy is considered as one of the important strategies to address the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Its multi-stakeholder platform encouraging a partnership approach towards resource conservation, resource efficiency and resource recycling has been found to be promising. In many countries, policies and strategies on circular economy are formulated to build the recycling infrastructure, promote new business models and spur innovations, especially in responsible product design. India has been on a pace of economic growth. Transiting to circular economy is therefore very relevant to India to achieve its development goals without compromising on the resource security. The various missions launched by the Government such as Make in India, Zero Defect India and programmes like Smart Cities and Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India) resonate with the principles of circular economy. This chapter introduces the concept and evolution of circular economy. It explains the key 6Rs, i.e. reduce, repair, refurbish, remanufacture, reuse and recycle. Challenges faced in the upstream and downstream of the material flows are also described. Case studies that present successes in moving towards circular economy are included with a focus on India. Finally, the chapter ends summarizing the status and way ahead in India’s circular economy.


Prasad MODAK
Executive President
Environmental Management Centre LLP

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