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An Introduction to Circular Economy

Industrial Circular Manufacturing


Industry is the propeller for the establishment and development of modern society by creating more human-dominated material and energy flows to transform resources into products or provide services. With the expansion of scale and variety, the industrial system has also laid its many negative marks in the natural environment systems. Thus, we need to reshape traditional industrial systems into more green, low-carbon, and circular ones according to circular economy principles. This chapter covers the following three aspects: (1) the hierarchical and circular structure of industrial ecosystems; (2) circular transformation strategies and practices, including eco-design at the product level, cleaner production at the process level, eco-industrial parks at the park level, sustainable industrial transformation at the regional level; (3) policy instruments of extended producer’s responsibility.


Executive Director
Jiangxi Institute of Eco-civilization, Nanchang University

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